Tide Mill Institute

 Mills in General

Adams, Peter. Early Loggers and the Sawmill. New York: Crabtree Publishing, 1992.

Azema, Jean-Paul Henri. Les Moulins de France. Rennes: Editions Ouest-France, 1995.

Baker, T. Lindsay. North American Windmill Manufacturers’ Trade Literature, a Descriptive Guide. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Baroja, R. Julio Caro. “Novias, azudas, acenas.” Revista de Dialectologia y Tradiciones Populares. Madrid. Vol. X, 1954.

Bate, John. The Mysteries of Nature and Art : in Foure Severall Parts : the first of water works, the second of fire works, the third of drawing, washing, limming, painting and engraving, the fourth of sundry experiments / by Iohn Bate. The second edition, with many additions unto every part. Bate described the mill at London Bridge in the 1635 2nd edition.

Bateman's Park Mill. An interesting demonstration of two uses of water power by successive generations. The National Trust (England), ca. 1970.  12 p. with illus.

Beenhakker, A.J. Windmills and Watermills in Iceland. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1976. 12 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Bennett & Elton. History of Corn Milling. Liverpool: 1898-1900. 4 vols. v. 1. Handstones, Slave & Cattle Mills; v. 2. Watermills and Windmills; v. 3 Feudal Laws and Customs with Appendix upon Steam and Roller Milling; v.4 Some Feudal Mills. Reprinted West Yorkshire: EP Publishing, 1975.

  Numerous plates and illustrations, general index. From preface: “We have long been impressed by the scantiness of the bibliography of corn milling; and had felt it strange that in this literary age—while, on the one hand, there should be extant various valuable milling works of a technical character, and an excellent milling press—yet that, on the other hand, there should be available no published history, however crude, of the origin and progress of this ancient and important industry.”

Blom, Louis H. The Tjasker Windmill. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1975. 21 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Blom, Louis H. The Windmills of the Greek Islands. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1999. 208 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Box, Thomas. A Practical Treatise on Mill-Gearing, Wheels, Shafts, Riggers, etc. for the Use of Engineers. Second edition. London: E. & F.N. Spon, 1877.

Braay, C.P. Windmills of Holland. Holland: ca. 1994

Buckland, J.S.P. Essington Post Mill. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1990. 7 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series. 

Candee, Richard M. “Merchant and Millwright: The Water Powered Sawmills of the Piscataqua.” Old-Time New England. Volume: 60 Number: 220 Issue: Spring, 1970 The early development of water-powered sawmills in southern Maine and New Hampshire raises questions of English familiarity with power milling technology, while the interest of merchants in northern New England sawmills suggest the economic importance of lumbering in the region. This article traces the development of lumbering and water-powered sawmills in the Piscataqua region. A pdf version of this article is available on another site, click here.


Charlier, Roger Henri. Tidal Energy. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhod Company, 1982.

Cocroft, Wayne D. Dangerous Enemy: The Archaeology of Gunpowder and Military Explosives Manufacture. Swindon, Wiltshire: English Heritage, 2000.

Cooper, W. Stephen. Watermills of Ontario, Quebec & Maritime Canada. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1988. 147 p.

  Nicely illustrated survey of many mills but seemingly without reference to tide mills.

Cotterell, Brian and Johan Kamminga. Mechanics of Pre-Industrial Technology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 325 p.

  General discussion of basic mechanics with brief mentions of the water wheel and gear wheels.

Curwen, E. Cecil. “The Problem of Early Water Mills.” Antiquity, vol. 18, 1944, p. 130-146.

  Summarised most of the important information about the Greek-Norse mill, and gives detailed references to other archaeological journals on which he has drawn.

Dickinson, H.W. & E. Straker. The Shetland Water Mill. Trans. Newcomen Soc. Vol. XIII, p. 89-94.

Ellis, C.M. “A Gazetteer of the Water, Wind and Tide Mills of Hampshire.” Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club XXV (1968), p. 119-140.

Evans, Oliver. The Young Mill-Wright and Miller's Guide. Facsimile reprint of the Philadelphia, 1834, edition. Almonte, Canada: Algrove Publishing Limited, 2004.

Fairbairn, Wm. Mills & Millwork. London, 1878.

Firmin, Peter. Mills and Big Wheels. Easy-to-make working models powered by wind, sand and water. London: A & C Black, 1994.

  Illustrated book for use with children for making models using boxes, glue, etc.

Forman, Benno M. “Mill-Sawing in Seventeenth-Century Massachusetts.” Old-Time New England. Volume: 60 Number: 220 Issue: Spring, 1970

The General Court of Massachusetts Bay Company awarded the first patent for a sawmill in America to Joseph Jenkins of Saugus, Massachusetts, on May 6, 1646. So began a prosperous enterprise, a practical way to support the young colonies. Benno M. Forman follows the development of mill sawing in seventeenth-century Massachusetts. A pdf version of this article is available on another site, click here.

Frizell, Joseph P. “The Old-Time Water Wheels of America.” Transactions American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 28, April 1893, p. 243

A copy of this article is available on another site, click here.

Gaucheron, Andre. Buckwheat Handmills in Brittany. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1991. 44 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series. 

Hamilton, Edward P. “The New England Village Mill.” Old-Time New England. Volume: 42 Number: 146 Issue: Fall, 1951

A new settlement in the sixteenth century required three things in order to be self-sufficient: a minister, a blacksmith, and a grist mill. Millers were offered special inducements, free land, and tax exemptions, among other things. Edward P. Hamilton looks at the mills of early New England and the villages that needed them so. A pdf version of this article is available on another site, click here.


Hamilton, Edward P. The Village Mill in Early New England. Sturbridge, MA: Old Sturbridge Village, 1964. Harverson, Michael. Persian Windmills. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1991. 65 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Hillier, J. Old Surrey Watermills. London: Skeffington & Son, 1951. First class treatment of mill construction, waterwheels, gearing and history.

Hooper, John H. “About the Old Mill.” Medford (Mass.) Historical Register (April 1914) p. 42-45. International Molinological Society. Transactions of Symposia. Various dates beginning in 1965. International Molinology. Bulletin of the International Molinological Society. 1974-

Jarvis, P.S. Stability in Windmills and the Sunk Post Mill. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1999. 40 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series. Second, revised ed.

Kindig, Steve (ed.) Water Power on the Farm. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1979. 32 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Lambrecht, Kalman. The Hungarian Windmill. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1999. 60 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Larkin, David. Mill. The History and Future of Naturally Powered Buildings. New York: Universe Publishing, 2000.

Leffel, James; Bookwalter. Leffel’s Construction of Mill Dams and Bookwalter’s Millwright & Mechanic. Newton, NC: Society for the Preservation of Old Mills, 1881. facsimilie reprint.

Limona-Trebela, E. Windmills of the Aegean Sea. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1983. 27 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Litchfield, Carter. The Bethlehem Oil Mill, 1745-1934. Oilseed Mill, Hemp Mill, Tanbark Mill, Groat Mill, Snuff Mill, Waterworks. German Technology in Early Pennsylvania. Kemblesville, Pennsylvania: Olearius Editions, 1984.

Lovering, Frank. “City’s Early Settlers Called on Nature for Milling of Corn.” Medford (Mass.) Daily Mercury. 22 May 1957.

Macaulay, David. Mill. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1983.

Major, J. Kenneth; Gaucheron Andre. The Eolienne Bollee. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1985. 66 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Major, J. Kenneth. Robert Stone, Miller of Pangbourne. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1980. 46 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Major, J. Kenneth; Martin Watts. Victorian and Edwardian Windmills and Watermills from Old Photographs. London: Fitzhouse Books, 1977.

Major, J. Kenneth (ed.) The Windmills of John Wallis Titt. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1977. 37 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Manker, Ernst. The Mills of Tjorn. Stockholm: Nordiska Museet, 1965. Marringa-Stapff, A.J. Mills of Surinam. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1977. 10 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Moog, Berthold. The Horizontal Watermill. History and Technique of the First Prime Mover. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1994. 96 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Parsons, Arthur W. “A Roman Water-mill in the Athenian Agora.” Hesperia, Vol. V, 1936, p. 70-90.

Pulling, Sr. Anne Frances. Windmills and Water Mills of Long Island. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 1999.

Rawson, Marion Nicholl. Little Old Mills. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1935. 367 p.

Although the text sometimes seems as impressionistic and charming as the title of the book implies, Rawson does provide much detail. She mentions hand and animal power as well as wind and water. She mentions various uses for mills: grist mill, boulting mill, sawmill, woodworking mill, sugar-cane mill, rice mill, spinning mill, ginning mill, fulling mill, snuff mill, hat or fur mill, cider mill. Her chapter on Tide Mills mentions terms for parts of the mills and mentions Perkin’s Tide Grist Mill, 1749, Kennebunkport, Maine; Booth Bay Harbor, Maine. John Patterson tidal corn-mill, near Yorktown, Virginia; Vance’s Mill, near Abington, Virginia; mill at Poplar Grove, Virginia; Gerritsen Tide Mill, Flatlands, Brooklyn built in 1636; Miller Baker in Roxbury, Massachusetts, 1650; Southport Harbor, Connecticut, 1715. Charming illustrations. She says [in 1935] that there are 8 or 9 tide mills still active in New England including Booth Bay Harbor and Perkins in Maine.

Reynolds, John. Windmills & Watermills. New York: Praeger, 1975. Excellent treatment of the subject. 196 pages filled with illustrations showing mills and their machinery. Includes references to tide mills.

Reynolds, Terry S. Stronger Than a Hundred Men: A History of the Vertical Water Wheel. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983. 453 p. Well-illustrated in-depth treatment of the subject with two pages on the origins of tide mills. Extensive bibliography.

Rivard, Paul E. Maine Sawmills: A History. Augusta: Maine State Museum, 1990. 

Riznik, Barnes. New England Village Sawmills, 1790-1840 . Date 1965 Type Papers and Articles: OSV Research Paper. A pdf version of this paper is available on another site, click here

Romanovsky, Vsevolod. La Mer: Source d’Energie. Paris: Presses Universitaire de France, 1950.

Sagui, C.L. La Meunerie de Barbegal. Isis, 1948, p. 225-231.

Although this book deals with the flood, there is detail about mill owners.

Skilton, C.P. British Windmills & Watermills. Collins, 1947. Has some fine illustrations and the chapter on Watermills, although too short, is interesting reading.

Smeaton, John. Catalogue of the Civil and Mechanical Designs 1741 to 1792. London: Newcomen Soc., 1950.

Smeaton, John. Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Natural Powers of Wind and Water to Turn Mills. London, 1794.

Somervell, John. Water Power Mills of South Westmorland. Kendal, 1930.

Sutcliffe, John. A Treatise on Canals and Reservoirs. 1816. This book is said to have an excellent section on Corn Mills.

Syson, Leslie. British Water-Mills. London: B T Batsford LTD, 1965. Takats, S. The Hungarian Mill. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1978. 7 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Thelwell, Norman. A Millstone Round My Neck: the Restoration of a Cornish Water Mill. London: Methuen, 1981.

Wailes, Rex. The English Windmill. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1954.

Ward, Owen. French Millstones. Notes on the Millstone Industry at la Ferte-sous-Jouarre. Den Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1993. 75 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Wells, Walter. The Water-Power of Maine. Augusta: Sprague, Owen & Nash, 1869.

Williamson, Kenneth. The Atlantic Islands. London, 1948. Chapter 9.

Wilson, P.N. “ Origins of Water Power” and “Water power and the Industrial Revolution.” Water Power, London, Aug. 1952 and Aug. 1954. These articles deal with the industrial use of water power more fully than with individual mills.

Wilson, Paul N. Watermills: An Introduction. London: The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, ca. 1955. Publication No. 1 of the Wind and Watermill Secton.

Woons, Frans. Index Papers TIMS. Index of papers and articles in TIMS PublicDen Haag, The Netherlands: The International Molinological Society, 1998. 32 p. Bibliotheca Molinologica series.

Zimiles, Martha. Early American Mills. [by] Martha & Murray Zimiles. New York: Bramhall House, 1973.

Sharpe, Elizabeth M. In the Shadow of the Dam. The Aftermath of the Mill River Flood of 1874. New York: Free Press, 2004.